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“I don’t need you to remind me of my age. I have a bladder to do that for me.”

— Stephen Fry

Bladder Conditions

Some of the information provided contains graphic, medical images which individuals may find upsetting

We normally are not aware of our bladder except when it is full. The bladder muscle and the nerve supply work together and accommodate increasing volume of urine without any rise in the pressure, until the bladder reaches its capacity.

Bladder dysfunction can have a serious impact on individual’s quality of life and can affect their ability to carry out their job and interact with people.

Bladder conditions may present with any of the following:

Overactive Bladder

Having to urinate frequently & Urinary urgency – Needing to rush to get to the toilet to urinate. It may be related to excessive coffee/ Tea, fizzy drinks etc and can be controlled by cutting back on these and undertaking bladder training. You may also require medication to relax bladder muscle.

Incontinence

Leakage of urine without any control. Usually it is small amounts but can be flooding causing embarrassing situation. The type of leakage can be either urge leak due to overactive bladder or stress leak due to weak pelvic floor/sphincter. Significant improvement can be obtained by losing weight in obese patients, and carrying out pelvic floor exercises. Wearing pads is a temporary measure and may require surgical procedures.

Urinary infection

Cystitis: More common in women due to closeness of urethra to other passages (Vagina & rectum). Preventive measures include maintaining good fluid intake, hygienic measures and emptying bladder after intercourse. Recurrent infections may require prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Conservative measures include use of Cranberry extract, D’Mannose etc.

Bladder pain

Can be due to a condition called Interstitial Cystitis. Patient get symptoms of cystitis associated with bladder pain and urine tests do not show bacteria. There may be blood in the urine and cystoscopy and biopsies may be needed for diagnosis.

Blood in the urine (haematuria)

Bladder cancer can sometimes present with this symptom and should not be ignored. Usual investigations include scans- ultrasound, CT, Urine cytology and Cystoscopy (inspection of the bladder with a telescopic instrument).

Most bladder symptoms can be treated with simple measures and medication.

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    Our Surgeon

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    Anaesthetist

  • Dr. Shashi Gopinath

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    Anaesthetist

  • Dr. Venkat Shenoy

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    Anaesthetist

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    Sharon Lambe

    Medical Secretary

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Further bladder related information

Please find below links to information leaflets and questionnaires from British association of urological surgeons explaining the tests/ procedures on your bladder.

  • Bladder instillations

    • Instillation of anti-cancer drugs into the bladder for chemotherapy PDF
    • Instillation of BCG into the bladder for immunotherapy PDF
    • Instillations for painful bladder conditions PDF
  • Catheter-related procedures

    • Catheter valves PDF
    • Management of a urethral catheter PDF
    • Permanent suprapubic catheter (in men) PDF
    • Permanent suprapubic catheter (in women) PDF)
    • Self-catheterisation in men PDF
    • Self-catheterisation in women PDF
    • Suprapubic catheter insertion PDF
    • Trial without catheter TWOC) PDF
    • Urodynamics (pressure tests on the bladder) PDF
  • Cystoscopy (inspection of your bladder)

    • Flexible cystoscopy ± biopsy or stent removal PDF
    • Rigid cystoscopy ± biopsy or stent removal PDF
  • Cystoscopy with other procedures

    • Bladder stone crushing (endoscopic litholapaxy) PDF Video
    • Bladder tumour resection PDF Video
    • Bladder washout for blood clots PDF
    • Botulinum toxin-A (Botox®) injections into the bladder wall PDF
    • Cystoscopy & retrograde studies PDF
    • Hydrodistension (stretching) of the bladder PDF
    • Stretching of the bladder neck (dilatation) in women PDF
  • Urinary incontinence procedures

    • Autologous sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence in women PDF
    • Colposuspension for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) PDF
    • Enlargement of the bladder with a piece of bowel (enterocystoplasty) PDF
    • Insertion of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) in men PDF
    • Insertion of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) in women PDF
    • Pelvic floor exercises (in men) PDF
    • Pelvic floor exercises (in women)
    • Sacral nerve stimulation (neuromodulation) PDF
    • Synthetic mesh tape insertion (in men) PDF
    • Synthetic mesh tape insertion (in women) PDF
    • Synthetic sling procedure safety advice (external MHRA website) PDF
    • Treatment options for overactive bladder (OAB) PDF
    • Treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) PDF
    • Urethral bulking PDF
    • Vaginal fistula repair (abdominal) PDF
    • Vaginal fistula repair (vaginal) PDF
  • Removal of your bladder

    • Living with a urostomy PDF
    • Radical bladder removal with bladder replacement (in men) PDF
    • Radical bladder removal with bladder replacement (in women) PDF
    • Radical bladder removal with urinary diversion (in men) PDF
    • Radical bladder removal with urinary diversion (in women) PDF
    • Simple removal of the bladder (with urinary diversion) PDF
    • Urostomy Association (external website)
  • Urinary diversion

    • Living with a urostomy PDF
    • Mitrofanoff procedure (creation of a catheterisable urinary stoma) PDF
    • Urinary diversion (into ileal conduit) PDF
    • Urostomy Association (external website)
  • Non-procedural bladder information

    • Bladder training PDF
    • Incontinence questionnaire (ICIQ-UI) PDF
    • Input/output chart (bladder diary) PDF
    • Nocturnal polyuria (passing too much urine at night) PDF
    • Overactive bladder questionnaire (ICIQ-OAB) PDF
    • Painful bladder syndrome (interstitial cystitis) PDF
    • Painful bladder syndrome questionnaire PDF
    • Self-help information for recurrent cystitis in women PDF
    • Treatment options for overactive bladder (OAB) PDF
    • Treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) PDF
    • Urinary & sexual problems following pelvic trauma PDF

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Adams also came to understand how important it was that his carefully crafted photos were reproduced to best effect. At Bender’s invitation, he joined the prestigious Roxburghe Club, an association devoted to fine printing and high standards in book arts.

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